ADSL — (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)
A DSL line where the upload speed is different from the download speed. Usually the download speed is much greater.
See also: Download, DSL, SDSL, Upload
- A simple example of Ajax would be a weather-forcast box in the middle of a web page. Ajax could be used to populate the box every 5 minutes without needing to refresh the surrounding page.
- Anonymous FTP
See also: FTP
The most common web server (or HTTP server) software on the Internet. Apache is an open-source application originally created from a series of changes (“patches”) made to a web server written at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, the same place the Mosaic web browser was created.Apache is designed as a set of modules, enabling administrators to choose which features they wish to use and making it easy to add features to meet specific needs including handling protocols other than the web-standard HTTP.
See also: HTTP, mod_perl, Mosaic, Server
A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The common rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.
See also: HTML, Java
- Application Server
Server software that manages one or more other pieces of software in a way that makes the managed software available over a network, usually to a Web server. By having a piece of software manage other software packages it is possible to use resources like memory and database access more efficiently than if each of the managed packages responded directly to requests.
See also: ASP, Server
- A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it. By 1999 Archie
had been almost completely replaced by web-based search engines.Back when FTP was the main way people moved files over the Internet archie was quite popular.
See also: FTP
- ARPANet — (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)
- The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60’s and early 70’s by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking to connect together computers that were each running different system so that people at one location could use computing resources from another location.
See also: Internet (Upper case I), Network, WAN
- ASCII — (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
- This is the defacto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111.
- ASP — (Application Service Provider)
- A organization (usually a business) that runs one or more applications on their own servers and provides (usually for a fee) access to others. Common examples of services provided this way include web-based software such as Calendar systems, Human Resources tools (timesheets, benefits, etc.), and various applications to help groups collaborate on projects.
See also: Application Server, Server
- An evolving protocol for syndication and sharing of content.Atom is being developed as a successor to and improvement over RSS and is more complex than RSS while offering support for additional features such digital signatures, geographic location of author, possibly security/encryption, licensing, etc.Like RSS, Atom is an XML-based specification.
See also: RSS, XML
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- A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.
See also: Network
- How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second (bps.) A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 57,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.
See also: Bit, bps, T-1
- In common usage the “baud” of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value – for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300= 1200 bits per second).
See also: Bit, Modem
- BBS — (Bulletin Board System)
- A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time. In the early 1990’s there were many thousands (millions?) of BBS’s around the world, most were very small, running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. Some were very large and the line between a BBS and a system like AOL gets crossed at some point, but it is not clearly drawn.
- Information consisting entirely of ones and zeros. Also, commonly used to refer to files that are not simply text files, e.g. images.
See also: MIME, UUENCODE
- Binhex — (BINary HEXadecimal)
- A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.
See also: ASCII, MIME, UUENCODE
- Bit — (Binary DigIT)
- A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.
See also: Bandwidth, Bit, bps, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte
- BITNET — (Because It’s Time NETwork (or Because It’s There NETwork))
- A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs®, a popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. At its peak (the late 1980’s and early 1990’s) BITNET machines were usually mainframes, often running IBM’s MVS operating system. BITNET is probably the only international network that is shrinking.
See also: Internet (Upper case I), Listserv ®, Network
- Blog — (weB LOG)
- A blog is basically a journal that is available on the
web.The activity of updating a blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is a “blogger.”Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog.Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in chronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominently.It is common for blogs to be available as RSS feeds.
See also: Blogosphere or Blogsphere, RSS
- Blogosphere or Blogsphere
- The current state of all information available on blogs and/or the sub-culture of those who create and use blogs.
See also: Blog
- bps — (Bits-Per-Second)
- A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 56K modem can move about 57,000 bits per second.
See also: Bandwidth, Bit
- Generally refers to connections to the Internet with much greater bandwidth than you can get with a modem. There is no specific definition of the speed of a “broadband” connection but in general any Internet connection using DSL or a via Cable-TV may be considered a broadband connection.
See also: Bandwidth, DSL, Modem
- A Client program (software) that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources.
See also: Client, Server, URL, WWW
- BTW — (By The Way)
- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum.
See also: IMHO
- A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made.
See also: Bit
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- DHCP — (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
- DHCP is a protocol by which a machine can obtain an IP number (and other network configuration information) from a server on the local network.
See also: IP Number, Network, Server
- DHTML — (Dynamic HyperText Markup Language)
- The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regards to the digital revolution.
- DNS — (Domain Name System)
- The Domain Name System is the system that translates Internet domain names into IP numbers.A “DNS Server” is a server that performs this kind of translation.
See also: Domain Name, IP Number, Server
- Domain Name
- The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names:
can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine.
Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names (matisse.net in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name.
See also: IP Number, TLD
- Transferring data (usually a file) from a another computer to the computer you are are using. The opposite of upload.
See also: Upload
- DSL — (Digital Subscriber Line)
- A method for moving data over regular phone lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber’s premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. A DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line (however a DSL circuit is not a leased line.
A common configuration of DSL allows downloads at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. This arrangement is called ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384 Kilobits per second in both directions.
In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second.
DSL is now a popular alternative to Leased Lines and ISDN, being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional Leased Lines.
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- IMAP — (Internet Message Access Protocol)
- IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients in communicating with email servers.
Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also manipulate message stored on the server, without having to actually retrieve the messages. So messages can be deleted, have their status changed, multiple mail boxes can be managed, etc.
IMAP is defined in RFC 2060
See also: Client, Email, POP, RFC, Server
- IMHO — (In My Humble Opinion)
- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer is aware that they are expressing a debatable view, probably on a subject already under discussion. One of many such shorthands in common use online, especially in discussion forums.
- internet (Lower case i)
- Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have an internet – as in inter-national or inter-state.
See also: Internet (Upper case I), Network
- Internet (Upper case I)
- The vast collection of inter-connected networks that are connected using the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s.
The Internet connects tens of thousands of independent networks into a vast global internet and is probably the largest Wide Area Network in the world.
See also: internet (Lower case i), Network, WAN
- Internet Property
- See Website
- A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. Compare with extranet.
See also: Extranet, internet (Lower case i), Internet (Upper case I)
- IP Number — (Internet Protocol Number)
- Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g.
Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number – if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Many machines (especially servers) also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.
See also: Domain Name, Server, TCP/IP
- IPv4 — (Internet Protocol, version 4)
- The most widely used version of the Internet Protocol (the “IP” part of TCP/IP.)IPv4 allows for a theoretical maximum of approximately four billion IP Numbers (technically 232), but the actual number is far less due to inefficiencies in the way blocks of numbers are handled by networks. The gradual adoption of IPv6 will solve this problem.
See also: IP Number, IPv6, Network, Protocol, TCP/IP
- IPv6 — (Internet Protocol, version 6)
- The successor to IPv4. Already deployed in some cases and gradually spreading, IPv6 provides a huge number of available IP Numbers – over a sextillion addresses (theoretically 2128). IPv6 allows every device on the planet to have its own IP Number.
See also: IP Number, IPv4, Network, Protocol, TCP/IP
- IRC — (Internet Relay Chat)
- Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility. There are a number of major IRC servers around the world which are linked to each other. Anyone can create a channel and anything that anyone types in a given channel is seen by all others in the channel. Private channels can (and are) created for multi-person conference calls.
See also: Server
- ISDN — (Integrated Services Digital Network)
- Basically a way to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000or 64,000 bits-per-second.
Unlike DSL, ISDN can be used to connect to many different locations, one at a time, just like a regular telephone call, as long the other location also has ISDN.
See also: DSL
- ISP — (Internet Service Provider)
- An institution that provides access to the Internet in some form, usually for money.
- IT — (Information Technology)
- A very general term referring to the entire field of Information Technology – anything from computer hardware to programming to network management. Most medium and large size companies have IT Departments.
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- Packet Switching
- The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed along different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.
You might think of several caravans of trucks all using the same road system to carry materials.
See also: Internet (Upper case I), Router
- A code used to gain access (login) to a locked system. Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as virtue7. A good password might be:
But don’t use that one!
See also: Login
- PDF — (Portable Document Format)
- A file format designed to enable printing and viewing of documents with all their formatting (typefaces, images, layout, etc.) appearing the same regardless of what operating system is used, so a PDF document should look the same on Windows, Macintosh, linux, OS/2, etc. The PDF format is based on the widely used PostScript document-description language. Both PDF and Postscript were developed by the Adobe Corporation.
- Perl — (Practical Extraction and Report Language)
- Perl is a programming language that is widely used for both very simple, small tasks and for very large complex applications.During the 1990s it became the de-facto standard for creating CGI programs. Perl is known for providing many ways to accomplish the same task, with “there’s more than one way to do it” being something of a motto in the Perl community.Because it is so easy to perform simple tasks in Perl it is often used by people with little or no formal programming training, and because Perl provides many sophisticated features it is often used by professionals for creating complex data-processing software, including the “server-side” of large web sites. Perl does not provide significant support for creating programs with a graphical user interface.
- A “permanent link” to a particular posting in a blog. A permalink is a URI that points to a specific blog posting, rather than to the page in which the posting original occurred (which may no longer contain the posting.)
See also: Blog, URI
- PHP — (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor)
- PHP is a programming language used almost exclusively for creating software that is part of a web site. The PHP language is designed to be intermingled with the HTML that is used to create web pages. Unlike HTML, the PHP code is read and processed by the web server software (HTML is read and processed by the web browser software.)
- To check if a server is running. From the sound that a sonar systems makes in movies, you know, when they are searching for a submarine.
- A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape® browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.
See also: Browser, Server
- PNG — (Portable Network Graphics)
- PNG is a graphics format specifically designed for use on the World Wide Web.
PNG enable compression of images without any loss of quality,
including high-resolution images. Another important feature of PNG is that
anyone may create software that works with PNG images without paying any
fees – the PNG standard is free of any licensing costs.
See also: GIF, JPEG
- podcasting or pod-casting
- A form of audio broadcasting using the Internet, podcasting takes its name from a combination of “iPod” and broadcasting. iPod is the immensely popular digital audio player made by Apple computer, but podcasting does not actually require the use of an iPod.Podcasting involves making one or more audio files available as “enclosures” in an RSS feed. A pod-caster creates a list of music, and/or other sound files (such as recorded poetry, or “talk radio” material) and makes that list available in the RSS 2.0 format. The list can then be obtained by other people using various podcast “retriever” software which read the feed and makes the audio files available to digital audio devices (including, but not limited to iPods) where users may then listen to them at their convenience.
See also: RSS
- POP — (Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol)
- Two commonly used meanings:
Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol.
A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines can connect to their network.
A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to a way that e-mail client software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain an account from an Internet Service Provider (ISP) you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get your mail.
Another protocol called IMAP is replacing POP for email.
See also: Client, Email, IMAP, ISP, Server
- 3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form:
This shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is 70).
Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.
See also: URL
- Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a “Portal site” has a catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service to entice people to use that site as their main “point of entry” (hence “portal”) to the Web.
- A single message entered into a network communications system.
- PPP — (Point to Point Protocol)
- The most common protocol used to connect home computers to the Internet over regular phone lines.
Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections and thus be really and truly on the Internet.
See also: Modem, SLIP, TCP/IP
- On the Internet “protocol” usually refers to a set of rules that define an exact format for communication between systems. For example the HTTP protocol defines the format for communication between web browsers and web servers, the IMAP protocol defines the format for communication between IMAP email servers and clients, and the SSL protocol defines a format for encrypted communications over the Internet.Virtually all Internet protocols are defined in RFC documents.
See also: FTP, HTTP, IMAP, POP, PPP, RFC, SLIP, SMTP, SNMP, SSL, TCP/IP, UDP
- Proxy Server
- A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the “real” Server that a Client is trying to use. Client’s are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. The clients makes all of it’s requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the “real” server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks
See also: Client, HTTP, LAN, Network, Server
- PSTN — (Public Switched Telephone Network)
- The regular old-fashioned telephone system.
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- RDF — (Resource Definition Framework)
- A set of rules (a sort of language) for creating descriptions of information, especially information available on the World Wide Web. RDF could be used to describe a collection of books, or artists, or a collection of web pages as in the RSS data format which uses RDF to create machine-readable summaries of web sites.
RDF is also used in XPFE applications to define the relationships between different collections of elements, for example RDF could be used to define the relationship between the data in a database and the way that data is displayed to a user.
See also: RSS, Web page, WWW, XML, XPFE, XUL
- REST — (REpresentational State Transfer)
- A loosely defined specification for HTTP-based services where all of the information required to process a request is present in the initial request and where each request receives only a single response, and where the response is in a machine-readable form.An example could be a service that accepts HTTP requests for a search and returns the result as an XML document.
See also: HTTP, Mashup, XML
- RFC — (Request For Comments)
- The name of the result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on the Internet, as a Request For Comments. The proposal is reviewed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (http://www.ietf.org/), a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail message formats is RFC 822.
- A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more Packet-Switched networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.
See also: Network, Packet Switching
- RSS — (Rich Site Summary or RDF Site Summary or Real Simple Syndication)
- A commonly used protocol for syndication and sharing of content, originally developed to facilitate the syndication of news articles, now widely used to share the contents of blogs. Mashups are often made using RSS feeds.RSS is an XML-based summary of a web site, usually used for syndication and other kinds of content-sharing.There are RSS “feeds” which are sources of RSS information about web sites, and RSS “readers” which read RSS feeds and display their content to users.RSS is being overtaken by a newer, more complex protocol called Atom.
See also: Atom, Blog, Mashup, RDF, XML
- RTSP — (Real Time Streaming Protocol)
- RTSP is an official Internet standard (RFC 2326) for delivering and receiving streams of data such as audio and video.The standard allows for both real-time (“live”) streams of data and streams from stored data.
See also: RFC
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- SDSL — (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line)
- A version of DSL where the upload speeds and download speeds are the same.
See also: ADSL, DSL
- Search Engine
- A (usually web-based) system for searching the information available on the Web.
Some search engines work by automatically searching the contents of other systems and creating a database of the results. Other search engines contains only material manually approved for inclusion in a database, and some combine the two approaches.
See also: WWW
- Security Certificate
- A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.
See also: SSL
- SEO — (Search Engine Optimization)
- The practice of designing web pages so that they rank as high as possible in search results from search engines.There is “good” SEO and “bad” SEO. Good SEO involves making the web page clearly describe its subject, making sure it contains truly useful information, including accurate information in Meta tags, and arranging for other web sites to make links to the page. Bad SEO involves attempting to deceive people into believing the page is more relevant than it truly is by doing things like adding inaccurate Meta tags to the page.
See also: Meta Tag, Search Engine
- A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, e.g. “Our mail server is down today, that’s why e-mail isn’t getting out.”
A single server machine can (and often does) have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network.
Sometimes server software is designed so that additional capabilities can be added to the main program by adding small programs known as servlets.
See also: Client, Network, Servlet
- A small computer program designed to be add capabilities to a larger piece of server software.
Common examples are “Java servlets”, which are small programs written in the Java language and which are added to a web server. Typically a web server that uses Java servlets will have many of them, each one designed to handle a very specific situation, for example one servlet will handle adding items to a “shopping cart”, while a different servlet will handle deleting items from the “shopping cart.”
See also: Java, Server, Web
- SGML — (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
- Developed in 1986 SGML provides a rich set of rules for defining new data formats.A well-known example of using SGML is XML, which is a subset of SGML: The definition of XML is all of SGML minus a couple of dozen items.SGML is an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard: ISO 8879:1986.
See also: XHTML, XML
- SLIP — (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
- A standard that was popular in the early 1990’s for using a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a real Internet site. SLIP has largely been replaced by PPP.
See also: PPP
- SMDS — (Switched Multimegabit Data Service)
- A standard for very high-speed data transfer.
- SMTP — (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
- The main protocol used to send electronic mail from server to server on the Internet.
SMTP is defined in RFC 821 and modified by many later RFC’s.
See also: Email, RFC, Server
- SNMP — (Simple Network Management Protocol)
- A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches.
SNMP is defined in RFC 1089
See also: Network, RFC, Router, TCP/IP
- SOAP — (Simple Object Access Protocol)
- A protocol for client–server communication that sends and receives information “on top of” HTTP. The data sent and received is in a particular XML format specifically designed for use with SOAP. SOAP is similar to the XMLRPC protocol except that SOAP provides for more sophisticated handling of complex data being sent between a client and a server. SOAP actually grew from the work that created XMLRPC.Microsoft’s “.NET” system is largely based on SOAP.
See also: Client, HTTP, Protocol, Server, XML, XMLRPC
- Spam (or Spamming)
- An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn?t ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone?s low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam® is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.)
See also: Maillist, USENET
- A somewhat vague term generally referring to software that is secretly installed on a users computer and that monitors use of the computer in some way without the users’ knowledge or consent.Most spyware tries to get the user to view advertising and/or particular web pages. Some spyware also sends information about the user to another machine over the Internet.Spyware is usually installed without a users’ knowledge as part of the installation of other software, especially software such as music sharing software obtained via download.
See also: Download, Web page
- SQL — (Structured Query Language)
- A specialized language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own slightly different version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.
A example of an SQL statement is:
SELECT name,email FROM people_table WHERE country='uk'
- SSL — (Secure Socket Layer)
- A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet.
- Sysop — (System Operator)
- Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. For example, a System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks.
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- A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 lines are commonly used to connect large LAN’s to the Internet.
See also: Bit, Internet (Upper case I), LAN, Leased Line, Megabyte
- A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.
See also: Internet (Upper case I), LAN, Leased Line
- The term “tag” can be used as a noun or verb. As a noun, a tag is a basic element of the languages used to create web pages (HTML) and similar languages such as XML. Another, more recent meaning of tag is related to reader-created tags where blogs and other content (such as photos, music, etc.) may be “tagged” which means to assign a keyword, such as “politics” or “gardening”, this enables searches for “all the blog postings in the past week that are tagged ‘prenatal care'”
See also: Blog, HTML, XML
- TCP/IP — (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
- This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now included with every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software.
See also: Internet (Upper case I), IPv4, IPv6, Packet Switching, Unix
- The command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.
See also: Host, Login
- 1000 gigabytes.
See also: Gigabyte
- A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer – the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.
- Terminal Server
- A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modemson one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet.
- TLD — (Top Level Domain)
- The last (right-hand) part of a complete Domain Name. For example in the domain name www.matisse.net “.net” is the Top Level Domain.
There are a large number of TLD’s, for example .biz, .com, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .net, .org, and a collection of two-letter TLD’s corresponding to the standard two-letter country codes, for example, .us, .ca, .jp, etc.
See also: Domain Name
- Trojan Horse
- A computer program is either hidden inside another program or that masquerades as something it is not in order to trick potential users into running it. For example a program that appears to be a game or image file but in reality performs some other function. The term “Trojan Horse” comes from a possibly mythical ruse of war used by the Greeks sometime between 1500 and 1200 B.C.
A Trojan Horse computer program may spread itself by sending copies of itself from the host computer to other computers, but unlike a virus it will (usually) not infect other programs.
See also: Virus, Worm
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- UDP — (User Datagram Protocol)
- One of the protocols for data transfer that is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. UDP is a “stateless” protocol in that UDP makes no provision for acknowledgement of packets received.
See also: Packet Switching, TCP/IP
- A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). Unix is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet.
Apple computers’ Macintosh operating system, as of version 10 (“Mac OS X”), is based on Unix.
See also: Linux, Server, TCP/IP
- Transferring data (usually a file) from a the computer you are using to another computer. The opposite of download.
See also: Download
- URI — (Uniform Resource Identifier)
- An address for s resource available on the Internet.
The first part of a URI is called the “scheme”. the most well known scheme is http, but there are many others. Each URI scheme has its own format for how a URI should appear.
Here are examples of URIs using the http, telnet, and news schemes:
See also: URL, URN
- URL — (Uniform Resource Locator)
- The term URL is basically synonymous with URI. URI has replaced URL in technical specifications.
See also: URI, URN
- URN — (Uniform Resource Name)
- A URI that is supposed to be available for along time. For an address to be a URN some institution is supposed to make a commitment to keep the resource available at that address.
See also: URI
- A world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET machines are on the Internet. USENET is completely decentralized, with over 10,000 discussion areas, called newsgroups.
See also: Newsgroup
- UUENCODE — (Unix to Unix Encoding)
- A method for converting files from
Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can
be sent across the Internet via email.
See also: ASCII, Binary, Email
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- WAIS — (Wide Area Information Servers)
- Developed in the early 1990s WAIS was the first truly large-scale system to allow the indexing of huge quantities of information on the Web, and to make those indices searchable across networks such as the Internet. WAIS was also pioneering in its use of ranked (scored) results where the software tries to determine how relevant each result it.
- WAN — (Wide Area Network)
- Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus.
See also: internet (Lower case i), LAN
- Short for “World Wide Web.”
See also: WWW
- Web page
- A document designed for viewing in a web browser. Typically written in HTML.
A web site is made of one or more web pages.
See also: Browser, HTML, Web, Website
- WebDAV — (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning)
- A set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that allows multiple users to not only read but also to add, delete, and change documents residing on a web server.In order to use WebDAV you need WebDAV client software to connect to a HTTP server that has the WebDAV extensions installed.Virtually all common HTTP servers have WedDAV extensions available to them.
See also: Client, HTTP, Server
- The entire collection of web pages and other information (such as images, sound, and video files, etc.) that are made available through what appears to users as a single web server. Typically all the of pages in a web site share the same basic URL, for example the following URLs are all for pages within the same web site:
The term has a somewhat informal nature since a large organization might have separate “web sites” for each division, but someone might talk informally about the organizations’ “web site” when speaking of all of them.
See also: Web, Web page
- Wi-Fi — (Wireless Fidelity)
- A popular term for a form of wireless data communication, basically Wi-Fi is “Wireless Ethernet”.
See also: Ethernet
- A wiki is a web site for which the content can be easily edited and altered from the web browser in which you are viewing it. Typically there is an “edit” button on each page and the wiki is configured to allow either anyone or only people with passwords to edit each page. The word “wiki” comes from a Hawaiian word meaning “quick.”
See also: Browser, Web, Web page
- A worm is a virus that does not infect other programs. It makes copies of itself, and infects additional computers (typically by making use of network connections) but does not attach itself to additional programs; however a worm might alter, install, or destroy files and programs.
See also: Trojan Horse, Virus
- WWW — (World Wide Web)
- World Wide Web (or simply Web for short) is
a term frequently used (incorrectly) when referring to
“The Internet”, WWW has two major meanings:
First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources
that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP,telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools.
Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers), more commonly called “web servers”, which are the servers that serve web pages to web browsers.
See also: Browser, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, Internet (Upper case I), Server, URL, Web, Web page
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- XHTML — (eXtensible HyperText Markup Language)
- Basically HTML expressed as valid XML. XHTML is intended to be used in the same places you would use HTML (creating web pages) but is much more strictly defined, which makes it a lot easier to create software that can read it, edit it, check it for errors, etc.XHTML is expected to eventually replace HTML.
See also: HTML, XML
- XML — (eXtensible Markup Language)
- A widely used system for defining data formats. XML provides a very rich system to define complex documents and data structures such as invoices, molecular data, news feeds, glossaries, inventory descriptions, real estate properties, etc.As long as a programmer has the XML definition for a collection of data (often called a “schema”) then they can create a program to reliably process any data formatted according to those rules.XML is a subset of the older SGML specification – the definition of XML is SGML minus a couple of dozen items.
See also: Ajax, SGML
- XMLRPC — (XML Remote Procedure Call)
- A protocol for client–server communication that sends and receives information “on top of” HTTP. The data sent and received is in a particular XML format specifically designed for use with XMLRPC.
See also: Client, HTTP, Protocol, Server, SOAP, XML
- XPFE — (Cross Platform Front End)
- XUL — (eXtensible User-interface Language)
- A markup language similar to HTML and based on XML.
XUL used to define what the user interface will look like for a particular piece of software. XUL is used to define what buttons, scrollbars, text boxes, and other user-interface items will appear, but it is not used to define how those item will look (e.g. what color they are).
The most widely used example of XUL use is probably in the Firefox web browser, where the entire user interface is defined using the XUL language.
See also: HTML, XML, XPFE